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Guar & Guar gum

Guar Gum History

Guar is a native to the Indian subcontinent. Guar is grown mainly in India, Pakistan, United States and also in some part of Africa and Australia.
In old times, Guar was only used as rich protein to feed cattle. It is also used as green vegetable in India. After Second World War there was major shortage of locust bean gumguar

guar_gum_im which adversely affected the textile and paper industries. At that time Guar Gum was found as the most suitable substitute for scarce locust bean gum. In 1953 the extraction technology of guar gum was commercialized in USA and India after decade of period.
Guar Plant
The guar plant is an annual plant known as ‘Cyamopsis Tetragonaloba’. The important source of nutrition to human and animals is the legume, it regenerates soil nitrogen and the endosperm of guar seed is an important hydrocolloid widely used across a broad spectrum of industries.
The guar plant flourishes in extremely drought resistant and semiarid regions where most plants perish. It grows best in sandy soils. The ideal areas for farming are West, Northwest India and parts of Pakistan. The major processing centers of Guar Gum are in the North Western states in India.
The guar plant grows from 2 feet to 9 feet high. The plant’s flower buds start out white and change to a light pink as the flower opens. The flowers turn deep purple and are followed by fleshy seed pods which ripen and harvested in summer.
The seed pods grow in clusters giving guar the common name cluster-bean. A gum extracted from the guar beans forms a gel in water, commonly referred to as guar gum. Guar is extremely drought resistant and thrives in semi-arid regions where few plants thrive. When limited moisture is available the plant will stop growing but does not die. Guar gum is also known as guarkernmehl, guaran, goma guar, gomme guar and galactomannan.

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Guar Harvesting period
A growing season of guar is 14 to 16 weeks and requires reasonably warm weather and moderate flashing rainfall with plenty of sunshine. Too much rain can cause the plant to become more ‘leafy’ resulting thereby reducing the number of pods or the number of seeds per pod which affects the size and yield of seeds. The crop is generally sown after the monsoon rainfall in the second half of July to early August and is harvested in late October early November. The Guar is a naturally rain fed crop. Depending on the monsoon rainfall the total size of Guar crop varies from year to year. After harvesting, when the pods become dry through sunlight, they are beaten off and during this process, the seeds come out of the pods.
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Guar Extraction Methodology
Contagion of the natural gums available at present occurs mostly due to poor handling. There are various tools and system available through which natural gums can be extract completely hygienic from the tree.
Guar Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Leguminosae
Tribe: Indigofereae
Genus: Cyamopsis
Species: C. tetragonoloba
Botanical name: Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.)
Synonyms: Cyamopsis psoralioides L.
Part Used: Seeds
Vernacular Name: Guar
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Guar Standard Specification
Minimum standards for good quality guar gum have been defined in the United States FCC and by European Union Specifications as under:
Moisture: 14% max. Ash (total): 1.5% max.
Acid Insoluble Residue: 4% max.
Galactomannan: 75% min.
Protein: 7% max.
Arsenic: 3 ppm max.
Lead: 10 ppm max.
Zinc: 25 ppm max.
Copper & Zinc: 50 ppm max.
Guar Gum Components
Guar Gum mainly consists of hydrocolloidal polysaccharide with a high molecular weight, which consists of galactopyranose- and mannopyranose- units in glycoside linkage which can be chemically described as galactomannan.
Name of Guar Gum in different countries
Arabic: صمغ الغار المستورد
Bulgarian: Гума гуар
Catalan: Goma guar
Chinese: 瓜尔豆胶
Croatian: Guar guma
Czech: Guar
Danish: Guargummi
Dutch: Guarpitmeel
Finnish: Guarkumi
French: Gomme de guar
German: Guarkernmehl
Greek: Το κόμμι γκουάρ
Hebrew: Guar גאם
Hindi: ग्वार गम
Indonesian:
Italian: Guar
Japanese: グアーガム
Korean: Guar 껌
Latvian: Guāra sveķus
Lithuanian: Guaro guma
Norwegian:
Polish: Gumy guar
Portuguese: Goma de Guar
Romanian: Guma de guar
Russian: Гуаровая смола
Serbian: Гуар гума
Slovak: Guar
Slovenian: Guma guar
Spanish: Goma guar
Swedish: Guarkärnmjöl
Tagalog: Guar gum
Ukrainian: Гуарова смола
Vietnamese:

Guar Gum Manufacturing Process
Depending upon the requirement of end product various processing techniques are used. In India the commercial production of Guar gum is normally undertaken by using process of roasting, differential attrition, sieving and polishing.
The stage wise process of manufacturing food grade guar gum is as under. It is very important to select guar split in this process. The split will be screened to clean and then it will be soaked to prehydrate in a double cone mixer. Prehydrating stage is very important in the process as it derives the rate of hydration of the final product.
The soaked splits, which has reasonably high moisture content, will be passed through Flacker to take them. The flaked guar split will be ground to desired particle size followed by drying of the material. The power will be screened through rotary screens to deliver required particle size. The oversize will be either recycle to main Ultra fine or regrind in separate regrind plant, as per viscosity requirement.
This stage helps to reduce the load at the grinder. The soaked splits are difficult to grind. Direct grinding of those generates more heat in the grinder which is not desired in the process as it results in insoluble or reduced hydration of the product. Through heating, grinding & polishing process the husk is separated from the endosperm halves and the refined Guar Gum split are obtained. Through grinding process the refined Guar split are then treated and converted into powder.
During the split manufacturing process, husk & germ are obtained which are used as a cattle feed as they are rich in protein. It is widely sold in the international market as “Guar Meal” and has contents of “Oil & Albuminoids”. These contents are about 50% in germ whereas it is about 25% in husks. Quality of the food grad guar gum powder is defined from its particle size, rate of hydration and the microbial in it. E412 guar gum is an important natural food supplement with high nutritional value.

Guar Gum: Stage wise Process
Guar Seed
 First, the pods are dried in sunlight, manually separated from the seeds.
 The seeds are supplied to the industry for processing.
 Guar by-products, churi and korma are used for Cattle feed.

Undehusked Guar Splits
 The gum is commercially extracted from the seeds essentially by
a mechanical process of roasting, differential attrition, sieving and polishing.
 The seeds are broken and the germ is separated from the endosperm.
 Two halves of the endosperm are obtained from each seed and are known as Undehusked Guar Splits.

Refined Guar Splits
• Refined Guar Splits are obtained when the fine layer of fibrous material, which forms the husk, is removed and separated from the endosperm halves by polishing.

Guar Powder
 The refined Guar Splits are then treated and finished into powders by a variety of routes and processing techniques depending upon the end product desired.
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Guar Gum : Method of marking
 The grade designation mark shall be securely affixed or stenciled on each container in a manner approved by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser and shall also indicate the number of the certificate of authorisation issued to the packer by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser.
 The authorised packer may, after obtaining the prior approval of the Agricultural Marketing Adviser, mark his private trade mark on a container in a manner approved by the said officer, provided the private trade mark does not represent quality or grade of the Guar Gum different from that indicate by the grade designation mark affixed on the container in accordance with these rules.
 In addition to the grade designation mark every container shall be clearly marked with the following particulars, namely:-
o Date of packing
o Lot number
o Name and address of the packer
o Net weight
o Any other particulars as may be specified by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser.
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Guar Gum : Method of Packing for export
 The Guar Gum shall be packed only in sound clean, dry and un-used containers made of B-twill just or in polythene bags placed in gunny bags or multi-ply craft paper sacks or any other material as may be approved by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser.
 The container shall be free from any insect infestation or fungus contamination.
 The container shall be free from any undesirable smell.
 The container shall be securely closed and sealed in the manner approved by the Agricultural Marketing Adviser.
 Each package shall contain Guar Gum of one trade description and one grade designation only.

Guar Gum Properties
The most important property of guar gum is its ability to hydrate rapidly in cold water to attain uniform and very high viscosity at relatively low concentrations. Another advantage associated with guar gum is that it is a soluble in hot & cold water and provides full viscosity in even cold water. Apart from being the most cost-effective stabilizer and emulsifier it provides texture improvement, and water-binding; enhances mouth feel; and controls crystal formation. It is inert in nature. It is resistant to oil, greases, and solvents. Guar gum exporter provides guar gum for food additives, guar gum for food ingredients, guar gum for pet food additives, guar gum stabilizing, food grade guar gum, industrial grade guar gum and technical grade guar gum.
The main properties of Guar gum are
 It is soluble in hot & cold water but insoluble in most organic solvents.
 It has strong hydrogen bonding properties.
 It has excellent thickening, Emulsion, Stabilizing and film forming properties.
 At very low concentration, Guar gum has excellent settling (Flocculation) properties and it acts as a filter aid.
 It is non ionic and maintains a constant high viscosity over a broad range of ph.
 It is compatible with a variety of inorganic and organic substances including certain dyes and various constituents of food.
 The viscosity of Guar gum solution increase gradually with increasing concentration of Guar gum in water.
 The viscosity of Guar gum is influenced by temperature, ph, presence of salts and other solids.
 It has excellent ability to control rheology by economic water phase management.
 It forms highly viscous colloidal dispersions when hydrated in cold water. The time required for complete hydration in water and to achieve maximum viscosities depends on various factors i.e. the ph; temperature; grade of powder used; Equipment etc.
 Guar Gum Physical Characteristics
 Guar Gum Chemical Properties
Guar gum is widely used as a guar gum emulsifying, guar gum for food that is food ingredients, guar gum thickening, pet food additives and gelling additives. Plantago ovata as a plantago ovata for food and guar gum manufacturer provide guar gum for food nutraceuticals guar gum for textile.
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Guar gum, a plant polysaccharide from Cyamopsis species, is widely used in the food industry as a thickener and suspending agent. Its study involved the evaluation and validation of various methods of processing as well as physical and chemical modification of this plant polysaccharide.
These process treatments aimed to improve the flavor, functionality and stability of guar gum as well as yield a variety of new applications.
The processes included the following operations: done singly or in combination: milling, sifting, deodorization, hydrolysis and chemical modification of the galactomannan.
Hydrolysis was done using an enzymatic breakdown or by pH control. Chemical conversion included an incorporation of a lipophilic moiety.
Evaluation of the products involved sensory evaluation, rheological study and end-use applications as in bakery products, oil-in-water emulsions, cereal products, dressings, sauces, fiber sources and many others.
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Guar Gum Viscosity
The most important characteristic of guar is its ability to be dispersed in water and hydrate or swell rapidly and almost completely in clod water to form viscous colloidal dispersions or sols.
The viscosity attained is dependent on time, temperature, concentration, pH, rate of agitation and practical size of the powdered gum used. The lower the temperature lower the rate at which viscosity increases and the lower the final viscosity.
Above 80º the final viscosity is slightly reduced. The finer guar powders swells more rapidly than coarse powdered gum.

Guar Gum: Physical Characteristics
 Guar Gum is a white to yellowish white powder and is nearly odorless. Fine finished Guar Gum Powder is available in different viscosities and granulometries depending on the desired viscosity development and applications.
 Guar Gum is a natural high molecular weight hydrocolloidal polysaccharide composed of galactan and mannan units combined through glycosidic linkages, which may be described chemically as galactomannan.
 Guar gum is a cold water soluble polysaccharide, consisting of mannose and galactose units. This ability to hydrate without heating makes it very useful in many industrial and food applications.
 Dissolved in cold or hot water, guar gum forms a slime of high viscosity. Guar’s viscosity is a function of temperature, time, and concentration.
 Solutions with different gum concentrations can be used as emulsifiers and stabilizers because they prevent oil droplets from coalescing. Guar gum is also used as suspension stabilizer.
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Guar Gum Powder Grades
The physical and performance characteristic of specific guar grades are determined by mechanical treatment before and after the endosperm is milled to its final, light tan flour form. Guar grades hydrate in both cold and hot water to yield viscous solutions.
Different guar gum powder grades are manufactured as per its industrial applications; for thickening, stabilizing, texturizing, enhancing suspension and flow control properties for industrial products, food products and processes.
For industrial use, addition of desirable qualities such as dust elimination for powdered products, the manufacture of stronger pellets, better flocculation or slip aids, for your processes or finished products.
There are two types of Guar Gum Powder
1) Food grade Guar Gum Powder: for used in industries like food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic etc
There are various of applications of food grade guar gum powder
Particle Size Viscosity Range (Cps)
100 MESH 3000-6000
-100 80% MIN
200 MESH 2000-9000
-200 90% MIN.
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2) Industrial grade Guar Gum Powder: For used in industries like paper,mining, explosive, Oil-drilling etc
There are various of applications of industrial grade guar gum powder
Particle Size Viscosity Range (Cps)
100 MESH 3000-6000
-100 80% MIN
200 MESH 2000-9000
-200 90% MIN.

300 MESH 3500-5000
-200 99% MIN.
The grade of Guar Gum Powder depends upon:
 Active matter content
 Granulation
 Viscosity
 pH
 Degree of substitution
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Guar Gum Powder as a thickening agent
Thickening agents, or thickeners, are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties, like taste. They provide body, increase stability, and improve suspending action. Thickening agents are often food additives.
Thickener is a food product used to provide a thicker texture to a liquid or food dish. Some thickeners are used for medical purposes to enable the swallowing of food to occur more easily, without choking. Thickeners are also used to improve the texture or flavor of the food dish.
The most common used of Guar gum is its use as thickening agent or thickener. The thickening agent provides body, increase stability, and improve suspending action. Thickening agents are most often as food additives. Thickeners are frequently based on polysaccharides (starches or vegetable gums) or proteins.
Guar Gum is a thickening agent derived from guar beans which is very useful in various baking applications. It is primarily used in hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole grain flours. Because the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as normal flour would.
Guar gum is widely used in food industries as thickening agent.
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Guar Gum Powder Standards
1) HS-Code of Guar Gum Powder: 130 232 30
2) CAS No. of Guar Gum Powder: 9000-30-0
3) EEC No. of Guar Gum Powder: E-412
4) BT No. of Guar Gum Powder: 1302 3290
5) EINECS No. of Guar Gum Powder: 232-536-8
6) Imco-Code: Harmless
Guar Gum Scientific classification
Botanical name: Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.)
Family: Leguminosae
Part Used: Seeds
Vernacular Name: Guar

Indian Guar Market
 India has been a major player in the context of guar and guar gum in the global market.
 India’s production contributes to 80% of the world’s total production figuring up to 6 lakh tons.
 Rajasthan wholly retains the credit for India’s position producing 70% of the production itself.
 Guar is largely consumed as a vegetable in the Indian subcontinent. It is also used in making pickles.
 25000 tons of the total production in the country constitutes to the domestic market.
 Guar gum has a vast range of industrial applications and the major share of demand comes from various industrial sectors only.
 India is the leading net exporter of guar seeds and guar gum. The country exports over 117000 tons of guar and its derivatives, which is comprised by 33000 tons of refined split guar gum, and 84000 tons of treated and pulverized guar gum.
 The net worth of the Indian exports is estimated over Rs 500 crores.
 The production list of guar is dominated by India as a leading producer of this crop. The consumption pattern of guar seeds is largely influenced by the demands from the petroleum industry of United States of America and the oil fields in the Middle East as the derivative products of these seeds are quite useful in the petroleum drilling industries.
 United States alone constitute to around 40 thousand tons of guar and its derivatives demand.
 Also, in rest of the world, the trend of consumption has increased with time that has lead to the introduction of this crop in many countries.
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The major importing countries of Indian Guar Gum and its derivatives are
 United States of America
 Germany
 France
 United Kingdom
 South Africa
 Netherlands
 Italy
 Japan
Projected India Seed Crop + Carryover: 4.5 million + 3.0 million bags = 7.5 million bags of 100 kgs each (splits/powder production potential of up to nearly 200,000 MT, although there is normally at least 1 million bags of carryover).
(2004 Crops by comparison: India 4 million bags crop + 5 million bags carryover = 9 million bags).
Global Demand: 650,000 MT seeds +/- 10%.
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Major Exporter of Guar Gum
India is also the world leader in the exports of guar and its derivatives followed by Pakistan. The major countries exports guar gums are
 India
 Pakistan
 USA
 Italy
 Morocco
 Spain
 France
 Greece
 Germany
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Major Importer of Guar Gum
The world market of guar is estimated at 1.5 lakhs tons annually. The major importer countries of the crop are
 Canada
 China
 Chile
 Australia
 Austria
 Brazil
 Germany
 Italy
 Japan
 United Kingdom
 USA
 Ireland
 Sweden
 Greece
 Portugal
 Mexico
Production of Guar in India
India produces 600000 lakh tons of guar annually i.e. the maximum level of production in the world. It contributes to around 80% share in the world’s total production. The major producing regions of this crop in India are
 Rajasthan
 Gujarat –
 Haryana
 Punjab
 Uttar Pradesh
 Madhya Pradesh
 Tamil Nadu
 Maharashtra
 Karnataka
 Andhra Pradesh
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Guar Gums Market Influencing Factors
 Changes in production due to rainfall fluctuation
 Demand and supply mismatch
 Hoarding and black marketing
 Government policies
Supply varies largely between years while the demand is almost constant over the years. There are involvement of speculators and stockiest in the physical market. The commodity is subjected to a long storage period based on demand and market prices. There are no Government rules and regulations governing the production, distribution, marketing, exports or imports of the commodity and the market forces determine the prices.